Applications and Techniques

This is a summary of the cement grouting and concrete repair techniques that Lincoln Company's veteran engineers and highly trained technicians employ to execute commercial infrastructure maintenance and repair projects.

Each type of grouting has specific applications. An experienced Lincoln Company consulting engineer will evaluate your job site and recommend the right approach for your soil conditions or structural repair.

Compaction Grouting

Compaction grouting for machine foundation.

Compaction grouting is a commercial soil densification process developed to replace pier methods. The technique is performed by inserting pipes into the zone to be stabilized, and a stiff cement grout is pumped in. This creates “bulbs” of grout that compact the surrounding soil, which:

  • Fills voids in the soil
  • Increases the soil density
  • Increases load bearing capacity
  • Drives out surrounding water
  • Gently and indirectly raises settled structures

The compaction grouting technique is suitable for use in residential, commercial and infrastructure applications, including:

  • Support pipelines
  • Fill sink holes
  • Raise roadways
  • Support soft ground tunneling
  • Compact loose fill
  • Raise settled structures
  • Correct improper dewatering
  • Support buried utilities

The importance of compaction grouting is that it restores uniform support between the structure and soil so it can function as designed, and is not subjected to the point-load stresses created by pier methods. Additional advantages of compaction grouting include:

  • No excavation necessary
  • No slab removal or building demolition necessary
  • Minimal disruption to customer operations
  • Does not compromise other portions of the structure
  • Grouting equipment is curbside, not on property
  • Repairs are undetectable on completion
  • Lower cost than pier or pile methods

Permeation Grouting

Permeation grouting is the low pressure injection of environmentally benign, high viscosity grout into granular soil. The grout fills the pores in the soil without displacing it, creating a solid mass which:

Permeation grouting prior to pipe jacking.
  • Strengthens, stabilizes and solidifies the soil
  • Reduces soil permeability
  • Prevents soil movement during excavation
  • Replaces existing water
  • Prevents water penetration

The permeation grouting technique is suitable for use in residential, commercial and infrastructure applications, including:

  • Erosion control
  • Support utilities in granular soil
  • Excavation support for structures and utilities
  • Water cut-off around below grade structures
  • Water cut-off for earthen dams
  • Strengthening soil prior to pipe jacking

Advantages of permeation grouting include:

  • No excavation necessary
  • No slab removal or building demolition necessary
  • Little noise, and no vibrations or odor
  • Occupants may remain in structure during installation
  • Can be performed well in advance of other construction work
  • May eliminate the need for additional shoring, underpinning or dewatering

Grout strength can be adjusted to accommodate manual or mechanical excavation, and can be modified for short term or permanent applications.

Epoxy Injection

Epoxy injection is a technique for the preservation and repair of cracked and delaminated concrete slabs and structures. An epoxy resin is injected deep into problem areas, creating a permanent, weatherproof repair.

The epoxy grouting technique is suitable for use in residential, commercial and infrastructure poured concrete applications, including:

Precast concrete vault.
  • Floors and ceilings
  • Structural columns and beams
  • Precast walls
  • Overlayments
  • Bridges
  • Tunnels
  • Roadways
  • Parking structures

Advantages of epoxy injection include:

  • Preserves integrity of good concrete
  • Protects exposed reinforcements, preventing corrosion
  • Resin is not vulnerable to sunlight, weather or traffic
  • Lowest profile, least noticeable repair method
  • Fills voids, does not just bridge them
  • Permanent repair solution

Lincoln Company has over 30 years of experience with epoxy injection repairs, and specializes in technically demanding projects.

Resistance Piers

There are foundation repair circumstances that can make grouting techniques either technologically or economically unfeasible. In these cases, Lincoln Company has the expertise to install conventional resistance piers and pair them with strategically applied grouting techniques in order to improve their performance and mitigate their potential disadvantages.

Installation of push piers to 75 feet in depth to stabilize elevator foundation.

Resistance piers are most often an appropriate solution when foundation settlement is due to thick layers of underlying settlement that lack the load bearing requirements of the structure. The piers transfer the load to deeper, suitably load bearing strata.

Voids are typically created by the installation of resistance piers. After installation is complete, Lincoln will then grout these spaces. The advantages of this dual technique include:

  • Prevent potential water accumulation
  • Part of foundation load is carried
  • Pier point load stress is reduced

It is important to note that depending on placement, with this method significant additional property restoration or pier concealment costs are incurred in addition to the repair itself.